It was Sunday … all the members of the house were talking lazily. Dharmapatiji was preparing a special breakfast. On the other hand, news of India-China dispute was being shown on TV. It seemed that there was something special on the India-China border dispute on the previous night. The TV was definitely on, but was not paying any attention to it. Meanwhile, my elder daughter Aura told Baba that “… Baba, if India had not been partitioned, then how strong India would have been today and China would not have dared to fight India….
Baba answered by taking a long breath and bringing a smile on his face, Alas! It could have happened Then, with a clean heart, the daughter raised the question that who is responsible for the partition of Baba India? In this case, son Arjun said that Jinnah is responsible for the partition of India. Due to them, the country was divided. Baba explained to all the children that “Children this story is not so easy and straightforward”. Then the youngest daughter Aditi said that Baba “can you tell us the story of Partition?” Stubborn to tell in relation to the role of Jinnah.
During the time of WhatsApp University and various types of false facts are presented on social media. In such a situation, the mind was delighted with the eagerness to know the story of the partition of the country in the minds of the children, but it was also feared that the children really want to know about such a subject?
Baba: “Do you really want to hear the story?”
All the children said in one voice: Yes.
Baba took a long breath and said: Wish India had not been partitioned, then perhaps India would have been the most powerful and prosperous country in the world. India’s borders would have extended to Iran and Afghanistan. Baba, while advancing his talk, said that the year 1937 is a matter of October. Jinnah came to Lucknow to attend the session of the Muslim League. Before that, the Congress had won heavily in the elections held in 1937. The Muslim League was defeated. The morale of the Muslim League was down. In such a situation, Muslim leaders only expected Jinnah.
Jinnah went on to say, “… this session of the Muslim League is one of the most important sessions. Muslims need not be disappointed. This is the time to unite. Muslim League has given better results than expected in elections The task of taking the League to every corner was not easy. The Muslim League has done a much better job to give the political voice to the Muslims along with the economic upliftment of the Muslims. We have no need to be disappointed. Far from the corner The league has been established almost everywhere till the west border state. This is a huge achievement … “
Jinnah further said that “… the leadership of the Congress is following the Hindu policy especially during the last 10 years. They cannot be expected to do justice and fairness to any Muslim ..” . “
Jinnah accused the Congress that “… they demand that they abolish the league and also end their policy and program. Can we do it? No way …”
Jinnah said while challenging the Muslims, “… before it is too late, the Muslims should choose their path. I have already told that a section of Muslims is divided. There is a group which is towards the British and the other group is the Congress They stand facing. They do this because they have lost faith in themselves. I want Muslims to take their destiny in their own hands and trust themselves. We want Muslims who are one. The majority community No agreement is possible with any Hindu leader because no one talks with any authority. The proposal of peace by the weaker party is always a sign of weakness and an open feast for the aggressor. The Congress high command speaks in different words. There is no such thing as a Hindu-Muslim question. There is no such thing as a minority question. I want the Muslims to consider their position and decide their own destiny. The Muslim League will definitely protect the rights and interests of Muslims. Standing for Congress. Under the guise of establishing a relationship with Muslims The effort is to divide and weaken Muslims. This is a dangerous step. Can not mislead us. Muslims of India need not be afraid. If you remain united then I believe that success will be with us … “
History is a witness to the fact that people of almost every caste and religion in India have come, lived and settled. In this, people of all castes and religions mixed together to create a new stream of cultural unity. The British never accepted this Indianness of ours, they divided themselves for their convenience and adopted a policy of governance.
Baba: Children, “We have to go back flash to understand this story.” ..
Presiding over the Allahabad session of the Muslim League in 1930, Urdu poet Iqbal said that the creation of a Muslim state by combining the areas of North West India seems to be the final destiny of Muslims. He gave his views regarding the creation of a separate ‘Muslim state’ for the Muslims. ‘Allahabad’ is the place where Iqbal first conceived a separate Muslim state / nation. The name ‘Pakistan’ was not mentioned in Iqbal’s speech but he had prepared the role of creating a separate country. That is why Iqbal has the same place as Jinnah in Pakistan today. He is the same Iqbal who wrote a good song from Sare Jahan, but later played an important role in the making of Pakistan.
Aura: “Baba, tell us in detail about Jinnah.”
Baba: Yes son, very few people know that Jinnah did not seem to be communal and fundamentalist from the beginning, responsible for the partition of India and the death of lakhs of people and rendering the homeless to countless.
Jinnah’s life was initially like a modern progressive one. It is believed that Jinnah was neither a Namaji nor under the purview of religious parochialism. He neither had a beard nor had any interest in fasting. He used to enjoy cigars and alcohol even during the holy days of Ramadan. He was also not familiar with Urdu language and Islamic literature. Initially Jinnah did not even support the views of Aga Khan, the religious leader of Muslims and told Tej Bahadur Sapru that if you destroy your old Panthi, Pandits and Purohit and we destroy our Mullans and Maulanas then The Hindu-Muslim problem will be solved.
After the elections of these provincial assemblies, Jawaharlal Nehru gave a statement that there are only two forces in the country. British Government and Congress. Voting against Congress means voting to accept British sovereignty. Only Congress can compete with the government. The interests of the opponents of Congress are interlinked. People have nothing to do with their demands. Jinnah became angry with Jawaharlal Nehru because of this statement. And after that he did not allow any opportunity to humiliate Nehru. Jinnah countered Nehru and said that I refuse to support the Congress. There is also a third party in the country and it belongs to Muslims. Jinnah warned Nehru and the Congress to leave Muslims alone on their condition.
The children were now beginning to enjoy some of this story. His curiosity was increasing. However, this was not expected, because even children, old and old, do not like to read and listen to such stories.
The curiosity of the children prompted Baba to tell the whole story in detail.
The children questioned Baba that “… was it only after 1937 that Pakistan would be formed? And did Jinnah hold stubbornness in 1937 in relation to his demand …?”
Turning his hand to the head of the little girl, Baba said that… after the 1937 Muslim League session, it almost seemed that the Congress and the Muslim League had always parted ways. But no one thought that Jinnah would go so far for his demand. Congress and other leaders underestimated the Muslim League and Jinnah. The Congress thought that Jinnah and Muslim League politics had ended with the defeat of the election of the state and they had no basis to return, but perhaps it was the mistake of the Congress leaders.
This session of the Muslim League was held from 22 March to 24 March 1940 in Minto Park, Lahore, now known as Iqbal Park. The two-nation theory was accepted by the Muslim League at the Lahore session. The Muslim League stamped its view that Hindus and Muslims cannot live together and that they are different nations. During the discussion on the proposal of Lahore, Jinnah gave a detailed interpretation of the two-nation approach i.e. two-nation theory, “… religious views, philosophies, social customs, literature are different for both Hindus and Muslims. They neither intermarry nor eat and drink together and in fact belong to two different cultures, which are mainly based on conflicting ideas and concepts. Their outlook on life is different. It is clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from various sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes. Many times the hero of one is the enemy of the other and similarly, often the victory of one is the defeat of the other…. ”
Book: Gandhi Defeated?
Price: Rs 251
Publisher: BFC Publication, Lucknow
Negotiations between the British Raj and the Congress on the issue of Congress support in the Second World War were not reaching any milestone and in the meantime, when the Congress split from power, the Muslim League felt that some doors had been opened for it. It is in this backdrop that the three-day meeting of the All India Muslim League in Lahore started on 22 March. While addressing the inaugural session, Mohammad Ali Jinnah said that the difference between Hindus and Muslims is so big and clear that their alliance under a central government will be full of dangers. He said that there is only one way in this case that their paths should be different.
On 23 March, the second day, the Prime Minister of Bengal, AK Fazlul Haq, presented the “Lahore Resolution”. It was said in the resolution that the areas where the number of Muslims is more, should be merged to form a separate country. Para 1 of the proposal put forward by Fazlul Haq stated that “… it is a well thought out idea of this session of the All India Muslim League that no constitutional scheme can work for this country or the Muslims till that time Cannot be accepted unless geographically contiguous units are merged as territories and after such necessary geo-regional adjustment, the majority of Muslim-majority areas, such as the North West enclave and eastern India Enclaves are not recognized as independent states with autonomous and sovereign constituent units … “
After July 14, a situation arose which caused public sentiments to rise, or to say that the patience of the public was on the verge of breaking. On the other hand, the British government was also preparing to suppress the public. In such circumstances there was bound to be a conflict between the government and the public. The session of the All India Congress Committee began on 7 August 1942 in Bombay (Mumbai). About twenty to twenty five thousand people attended this session. The committee passed an important resolution which is famous as the “Quit India Resolution”. This proposal was presented by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, which was approved by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. The resolution was passed by an overwhelming majority on 8 August. Only 12 members voted against it. The park in Mumbai (Gwalia Tank Ground) from which this movement started, has been named ‘August Kranti Maidan’.
After the resolution was passed, Gandhiji gave his speech. Within Gandhiji, there was a communication of such power that it is not possible to describe in words. Pattabhi Sitaramaiya has mentioned in his book “The History of the Congress” that Gandhiji was giving a speech that day with the driving force of the avatar and the Prophet. The flame was burning inside them. On that day, Gandhiji rose above the political arena and talked about divine knowledge, filled with humanity, universal brotherhood, peace and harmony towards human beings. Gandhiji had said that I take the responsibility of leading you in this battle, not as a commander or controller but as your petty servant. Gandhiji asked that… what crime has the Congress committed by asking for India’s independence today…?
Concluding his speech, he said that today I have placed the Congress at stake. Either she will or she will die. Gandhiji also said in his speech that this will be the last struggle of my life. In this speech, he gave the historical slogan of “do or die”. Which meant that the Indian public would do everything possible to achieve freedom. Gandhiji had also made it clear that this movement would be completely non-violent and violence would have no place in any way.
(Author Durgesh Pandey is an officer of the Higher Judicial Service.)